Table 1.

Case reports on oxycodone-induced leukoencephalopathy

Author (year)Drug causing encephalopathyAge and sex Presenting clinical featureBrain structure(s) involvedOutcome at time of reporting
Morales Odia Y (2010)6Oxycodone 350 mg and oxycontin 400 mg46 years M
Respiratory depression and acute hydrocephalus
Cerebellum and GPaSurvived with residual disability
Beatty CW (2014)7Oxycodone 75 mg14 years F
Altered mental status and decreased respiration
GPaSurvived but with mild disability
Holyoak AL (2014)8Oxycodone and clonazepam26 years M
Unresponsiveness
GPa and periventricular WMTracheostomy; died of another cause soon after
Ramirez-Zamora A (2015)9OxycodoneAdult
Reduced sensorium
GPa and hippocampusPersistent neurobehavioral symptoms
Middlebrooks EH (2017)10Oxycodone (nasal)29 years F
Acute confusion, bradykinesia and early hydrocephalus
Caudate, putamen, GPa, and internal and external capsuleResidual parkinsonism at discharge
52 years F
Coma, AKI and rhabdomyolysis
WM of supratentorial brain and right cerebellumDied
38 years M
Unresponsiveness
Periventricular WM, and sparing of BG and posterior fossaPersistent incoordination and weakness of all four limbs
Duran D (2017)11Oxycodone10 month F
Unresponsiveness
Cerebellum and caudate nucleusAt 33 months had some neurological signs
Wheaton T (2019)2Oxycodone4 years M
Unresponsiveness
Cerebellar and cerebral WM lesionsSurvived with residual disability
  • AKI = acute kidney injury; BG = basal ganglia; F = female; GPa = globus pallidi; M = male; WM = white matter.