Table 1.

Hospital antibiotic policy showing recommended empirical antibiotic regimen based on clinical syndrome and type of patient

Type 1Type 2Type 3Type 4
Meningo-encephalitisCeftriaxone with doxycycline + artesunate + acyclovirPiperacillin-tazobactam + vancomycin + acyclovirMeropenem + vancomycin/linezolidLiposomal amphotericin-b or flucanozole
Focal brain lesionCeftriaxone + metronidazole + vancomycinPiperacillin-tazobactam + linezolidMeropenem + linezolidLiposomal amphotericin-b or flucanozole
SinusitisAmoxicillin–clavulanic acid or clarithromycinPiperacillin-tazobactam + azithromycinMeropenem + linezolidLiposomal amphotericin-b
Acute bronchitis / COPD exacerbationClarithromycin or amoxicillin–clavulanic acidCefaperazone-sulbactum + azithromycinConsult infectious diseasesNot applicable
PneumoniaAmoxicillin–clavulanic acid + azithromycin + consider oseltamivirConsider MRSA cover + cefaperazone-sulbactum + azithromycin
cotrimoxazole at high doses if PCP is suspected in HIV
Imipenem + linezolid + levofloxacin or tigecycline + colistinCaspofungin or voriconazole
Intra-abdominal infectionsCefaperazone-sulbactum or ertapenemImipenem or tigecycline alone;
ertapenem if haemodynamically stable
Imipenem/doripenem + teicoplanin
consider tigecycline + colistin
Caspofungin or anidulafungin
Urinary tract infectionsCefaperazone-sulbactum or amikacinCefaperazone-sulbactum + amikacin or meropenemDoripenem/meropenem + teicoplanin/vancomycinFlucanozole or liposomal amphotericin-b or caspofungin
Skin and soft tissue infectionsAmoxicillin–clavulanic acid or clindamycinAmoxicillin–clavulanic acid or piperacillin-tazobactam + linezolid/teicoplanin or tigecycline aloneImipenem + linezolid/teicoplanin or tigecycline + colistinLiposomal amphotericin-b or voriconazole
Bone and joint infectionsCeftriaxone + teicoplaninCefaperazone-sulbactum + teicoplaninTigecycline + colistin or meropenem + teicoplaninLiposomal amphotericin-b or caspofungin
Occult sepsis / blood stream infectionCeftriaxone + azithromycin + artesunateCefaperazone-sulbactum + amikacin or ertapenem; add azithromycin to eitherMeropenem + teicoplanin/vancomycinCaspofungin or anidulafungin +/− voriconazole
  • COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; MRSA = methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; PCP = pneumocystis pneumonia.