Table 1.

Assessment of conditions that are frequently missed and easily identified

Clinical feature or abnormal testOther featuresCorroborative testsDifferential diagnoses
SerostisDocumented fever or arthropathyCRP, FBC or genetic testingFamilial Mediterranean fever
Mucosal ulcers (oral/genital)Arthropathy, pathergy or rash/ENHLA-B51Beh├žet's disease
Sicca: oral/ocularArthropathy or chronic rashShirmer's test or auto-antibodiesSjogren's syndrome
Osmotic symptomsWeight loss or abdominal painGlucose, HbA1c or calciumDiabetes or hypercalcaemia
ArthropathyPhotosensitivity, Raynaud's syndrome or rashANA, ENA, complement or ferritinLupus, adult Still's disease or Lyme disease
Urticaria>48 hours or residual discolourationANA, anti-C1q Ab or complementUrticarial vasculitis (HUVS)
Abdominal/pelvic painDyspareunia, menorrhagia or infertilityPelvic imaging or laparoscopyEndometriosis or Crohn's disease
Extreme daytime somnolenceSnoring, obesity or airway issuesSpecialist sleep studyObstructive sleep apnoea
LymphopeniaEN, lupus symptoms or infectionsSACE, ANA or HIV testingSarcoid, lupus or HIV
  • ANA = antinuclear antibodies; CRP = C-reactive protein; EN = erythema nodosum; ENA = extractable nuclear antigen; FBC = full blood count; HbA1c = glycated haemoglobin; HUVS = hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis syndrome; SACE = serum angiotensin-converting enzyme.