Box 2.

The Five Stages of Teaching a Skill8

Conceptualisation: The learner must understand the cognitive elements of the skill: that is, why it's done, when it's done, when it's not done, and the precautions involved. The learner must know the instruments and tools involved in the skill's performance.
Visualisation: The learner must see the skill demonstrated in its entirety from beginning to end so as to have a model of the performance expected.
Verbalisation: The learner must hear a narration of the steps of the skill along with a second demonstration. If the learner is able to narrate correctly the steps of the skill before demonstrating, there is a greater likelihood that the learner will correctly perform the skill.
Practice: The learner having seen the skill, heard a narration, and repeated the narration, now performs the skill. The skill may be broken down into discreet units for practice: subcomponent practice – practicing a small portion of the skill; linkage practice –practicing small portions linked together; contiguous practice – practicing the entire skill repetitively.
Correction and reinforcement: Skill errors need immediate correction. Positive reinforcement should be used to cement correct performance.