Table 1.

Clinical application of hydrogen in liver diseases

DiseaseAdministration methodDurationOutcomeResearch design
NAFLDDrink HRW4 weeks↓ fat accumulationRandomised controlled pilot trial
CHBDrink HRW 3x daily (1,200–1,800 mL)6 weeksImprove tendencies in liver function and HBV DNA levelRandomised controlled study
Liver dysfunction caused by tumourDrink HRW (0.55–0.65 mM)6 weeksQOL scores significantly improvedRandomised, placebo-controlled study
Liver dysfunction after colorectal cancer chemotherapyDrink 1,000 mL HRW, 1 day prior to chemotherapy until the end4 daysPlacebo group: significantly ↑ ALT, AST, IBIL. Experimental group: no differencesRandomised, placebo-controlled study
Liver cancer with radiofrequency ablation5 mL/kg HRW (>0.6 mmol/L) 4 hours before operationOnceImproves anti-inflammatory ability: ↓ HMGB1, VEGF1; ↑ IL-4, IL-10Randomised controlled study
Liver injury in patients with initial treatment of pulmonary tuberculosisDrink hydrogen-saturated water2, 4 and 6 weeksIn 4 and 6 weeks, ↓ XOD, MDA; ↑ SOD, GSTReduce drug-induced liver injuryControlled trial
  • ALT = alanine aminotransferase; AST = aspartate aminotransferase; CHB = chronic hepatitis B; GST = glutathione S-transferase; HBV = hepatitis B virus; HMGB1 = high-mobility group box 1; HRW = hydrogen-rich water; IBIL = indirect bilirubin; IL = interleukin; MDA = malondialdehyde; NAFLD = non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; QOL = quality of life; SOD = superoxide dismutase; VEGF1 = vascular endothelial growth factor 1; XOD = xanthine oxidase.