Table 1.

Endocrine dysfunctions described in COVID-19 and authors’ suggestions for patients and clinicians

Cases described in COVID-19Orchitis
Lower testosterone levels
Impaired sperm quality and quantity
Adrenal infarctionSubacute thyroiditis
Euthyroid sick syndrome
Pituitary apoplexyHigher mortality and morbidity linked with severe hyponatraemia
Suggestions for patients and cliniciansCheck early morning testosterone level; if symptoms suggest hypog­onadism repeat 3–6 months after acute illnessEducation of sick-day rule
Review of diabetes medication including metformin, SGLT-2 inhibitor and GLP-1 agonist
Education of sick-day rule – increase dose of hydrocortisone during acute illnessMonitor thyroid function test if features suggestive of thyroid dysfunction is presentConsider checking early morning pituitary hormonal profile including cortisolUse of serum and urine osmolality and sodium to establish the cause of hyponatraemia
Assess hydration status
  • DKA = diabetic ketoacidosis; HHS = hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state.