Table 4.

Examples of predisposing, precipitating, perpetuating and protective factors

PredisposingEarly life adverse events
Chronic stress
Personality trait, anxiety, depression or neuroticism
PrecipitatingSocial change
Active medical problem
PerpetuatingPositive gain from symptom (eg attention or sick role)
Rejecting the bio-psycho-social model
ProtectiveGood support system
Hobbies and interests
Good understanding of condition
Removal of stressor