Table 4.

Key findings mapped to the diffusion of innovations framework

Element of diffusion of innovations theoryImpact on rate of adoptionFindings
Relative advantageIncreases rateAI offers a relative advantage by improving the working lives of clinicians
Risk of bias in AI tools reduces this relative advantage
The degree of relative advantage needed for adoption of AI in the NHS has not been agreed: absence of a gold standard
CompatibilityIncreases rateNHS IT infrastructure may not be compatible with AI
Regulatory landscape is not compatible with AI
Certain specialties are more compatible with AI
Transferability of AI tools may be poor: they may only be compatible with a single NHS site
ComplexityDecreases rateImproved language clarity around AI could reduce its perceived complexity
Education about AI could reduce its perceived complexity
TrialabilityIncreases rateHigh up-front costs of AI, combined with the existing financial pressures facing the NHS, limit its trialability
ObservabilityIncreases rateBlack box AI reduces the observability of the decision-making process
Time: adopter categoriesn/aSome healthcare professionals will be more or less resistant to adopting AI: this reflects the five adopter categories
Social system: opinion leadersIncreases rateChampions could be used as facilitators of AI adoption; these reflect the opinion leaders described by Rogers