Table 1.

Some empirical evidence for the indecisive approach2,3

StakeholdersEmpirical evidence
Central governmentThe central government did not swiftly make vaccine purchase contracts with international pharmaceutical companies until the second quarter of 2021.
Local governmentsAbout 8.5% of local employees (97/1,143) at the Guro-gu call-centre were confirmed to have COVID-19 in March 2020.
HospitalsA number of medical doctors quit their jobs at public health centres in July 2020 (1/3 at Gwanak-gu and Gangdong-gu), partly due to their exclusion from the COVID-19 decision-making process.
BusinessesPublic prosecutors recorded 301 cases related to COVID-19 in March 2020, 72.8% (n=219) of which were associated with businesses’ strategies toward face masks.
Local communitiesMore than 500 people were confirmed to have been infected by COVID-19 after the Gwanghwamun rally led by Jeon Kwang-hoon in mid-August 2020.