Table 1.

Symptomology of Nipah virus encephalitis

Incubation period
  • Ranges from a few days to months; majority within 2 weeks

Acute non-specific signs and symptoms
  • Fever

  • Headache

  • Vomiting

  • Respiratory symptoms – atypical pneumonia, cough, acute respiratory distress syndrome

Acute neurological signs and symptoms
  • Reduced level of consciousness or altered Glasgow coma scale

  • Areflexia or hyporeflexia

  • Focal weakness

  • Brain stem dysfunction – abnormal pupils or dolls-eyes reflex, tachycardia, hypertension

  • Seizures

  • Behavioural change

Sub-acute signs and symptoms
  • Late-onset encephalitis symptoms – reduced level of consciousness or altered Glasgow coma scale; brain stem dysfunction; seizures; behavioural change

Long-term sequalae
  • Relapse encephalitis

  • Persistent neurological deficits

  • Cognitive deficits including memory disturbances

  • Depression

  • Behavioural change

  • Functional difficulties