Table 2.

Overview of included studies (Continued)

StudyYearCountrySettingStudy conceptMethodsParticipantsFocusMERSQI score
Westbrook et al.62021AustraliaSeven metropolitan tertiary hospitalsIncivility, bullying, extreme unprofessional behaviourSurveyNurses, doctors, clinical and non-clinical services, administrators (n=5,178)Prevalence, type and impact of unprofessional behaviours9
Riskin et al.292019IsraelOne general hospitalRudenessQualtrics-based smartphone application (Qualtrics, Provo, UT, USA)Medical professionals (n=160)Iatrogenesis and lapses in patient safety, state depletion and team processes10
Cooper et al.322019USATwo academic medical centresUnprofessional behaviourElectronic reportsPatients (n=13,653)Risk of surgical and medical complications9
Katz et al.302019USAThree academic hospitalsIncivilityRandomised control trials and surveysCategorical (CA) Year 1–3 anaesthesiology residents (n=76)Technical and non-technical performance domains, including vigilance, diagnosis, communication and patient management12
Riskin et al.332017IsraelMixed: hospitalsRudenessSimulation training, randomisation39 NICU teams, each compromising two physicians and two nurses (n=156)Impact of rudeness on medical team’ performance and test interventions9
Elhoseny and Adel342016EgyptOne hospital (medical, surgical, ICU, anaesthesia, A&E and pathology departments)Disruptive behaviourQuestionnaire based on ACPE and QuantiaMD surveyPhysicians (n=183)Situation, culture6.5
Maddineshat et al.312016IranFive general hospitalsDisruptive behavioursQuestionnaires analysed with SPSS version 13 softwarePhysicians and nurses (n=155)Physician–nurse relationships and quality of care8
Bradley et al.22015EnglandThree teaching hospitalsRude, dismissive and aggressive communicationFocus groups and questionnaire designed by authorsJunior doctors, registrants and consultants (n=606)Profession, situation and culture7
Riskin et al.142015IsraelMixed: hospitalsRudenessACPE and QuantiaMD24 NICU teams rated by three judges (n=72)Iatrogenesis and performance deficiencies among medical team members7
Cochran and Elder52015USAOne academic medical centreDisruptive behaviourInterviewsScrub technicians, nurses, medical students, surgical residents and anaesthesiologists (n=19)Coping strategies used by perioperative staff8
Rosentein and Naylor352012USA20 A&E departmentsDisruptive behaviourQuestionnaires developed by authorsPhysician, nurses, secretaries or clerks, and A&E technicians (n=237)Personality, professions, culture and situations8
Rosenstein and O'Daniel372008USA102 hospitalsDisruptive behaviourQuestionnaires developed by authorsPhysicians, nurses, administrative employees and others (n=4,530)Professions7
Rosenstein and O'Daniel362005USA102 hospitalsDisruptive behaviourQuestionnaire developed by authorsNurses, physicians, administrators (n=1,509)Professions8
  • A&E = accident and emergency; ACPE = American College of Physician Executives; ICU = intensive care unit; NICU = neonatal intensive care unit.