Table 3.

Associations between CT features, symptoms and lung function*

OutcomeBreathlessness, odds ratio (95% CI)Cough, odds ratio (95% CI)Chest pain, odds ratio (95% CI)Percentage predicted FVC, mean difference (95% CI)FEV1/FVC ratio, mean difference (95% CI)Percentage predicted TLC, mean difference (95% CI)Percentage predicted DLCO, mean difference (95% CI)
Consolidation3.35 (1.40–8.00), p=0.0071.22 (0.92–1.61), p=0.1691.00 (0.95–1.05), p=0.954–5.33 (–7.60 to −3.07), p<0.0011.70 (0.43–2.97), p=0.009–0.22 (–4.10 to 3.67), p=0.913–5.70 (–8.16 to–3.24), p<0.001
Ground glass opacification1.01 (0.99–1.03), p=0.3871.01 (1.00–1.03), p=0.2851.01 (0.97–1.05), p=0.617–0.15 (–0.26 to −0.03), p=0.0110.08 (–0.00 to 0.15), p=0.055–0.02 (–0.17 to 0.12), p=0.729–0.16 (–0.29 to −0.04), p=0.012
Reticular pattern0.98 (0.93–1.03), p=0.3540.97 (0.93–1.02), p=0.1860.92 (0.80–1.06), p=0.273–0.24 (–0.82 to 0.33), p=0.4020.14 (–0.10 to 0.38), p=0.252–0.22 (–0.60 to 0.16), p=0.2530.18 (–0.55 to 0.91), p=0.629
Honeycombing1.66 (1.18–2.32), p=0.0031.00 (0.67–1.48), p=0.9921.45 (0.94–2.25), p=0.094–2.72 (–5.08 to −0.37), p=0.0230.85 (–0.48 to 2.18), p=0.209–0.31 (–1.63 to 1.01), p=0.649–1.79 (–5.71 to 2.13), p=0.371
Crazy paving patternperfect prediction1.23 (0.78–1.94), p=0.4375perfect prediction–0.62 (–1.48 to 0.24), p=0.155–0.08 (–0.66 to 0.50), p=0.795–1.25 (–2.32 to −0.19), p=0.021–1.64 (–2.51 to −0.76), p<0.001
Pulmonary distortion0.91 (0.72–1.15), p=0.4310.91 (0.76–1.09), p=0.3160.73 (0.52–1.04), p=0.083–0.51 (–2.28 to 1.26), p=0.5740.26 (–0.72 to 1.24), p=0.604–1.65 (–3.57 to 0.26), p=0.0910.59 (–0.84 to 2.02), p=0.420
Parenchymal bands0.91 (0.71–1.15), p=0.4220.90 (0.71–1.14), p=0.3680.82 (0.54–1.24), p=0.341–1.45 (–3.81–0.91), p=0.2300.78 (–0.43 to 1.98), p=0.208–0.30 (–3.06 to 2.45), p=0.829–0.38 (–3.19 to 2.43), p=0.792
Subpleural curvilinear lines0.72 (0.55–0.95), p=0.0190.79 (0.61–1.03), p=0.0830.75 (0.47–1.22), p=0.2510.30 (–2.08 to 2.68), p=0.806–0.36 (–1.54 to 0.82), p=0.5470.16 (–1.95 to 2.26), p=0.8831.68 (–1.06 to 4.41), p=0.229
Traction bronchiectasis/bronchiolectasis index0.97 (0.53–1.79), p=0.9310.91 (0.56–1.50), p=0.7240.48 (0.11–2.01), p=0.315–6.75 (–12.6 to −0.94), p=0.0233.21 (0.33–6.09), p=0.029–3.36 (–8.80 to 2.09), p=0.227–5.65 (–14.2 to 2.94), p=0.197
  • *For binary outcomes (breathlessness, cough and chest pain), random effects logistic regression with robust standard errors, grouped by patient over three timepoints; for continuous outcomes (FVC, FEV1/FVC ratio, plethysmography TLC and diffusion DLCO), random effects linear regression with robust standard errors, grouped by patient over three timepoints; all models adjusted for age, sex and body mass index.

  • For consolidation, ground glass opacification, reticular pattern, honeycombing, crazy paving pattern: whole lung % (mean of % for each of five lobes); for pulmonary distortion, parenchymal bands, and subpleural curvilinear lines: number of lobes affected; for traction bronchiectasis/bronchiolectasis index whole-lung mean index (mean of index for each of five lobes).

  • CI = confidence interval; DLCO = transfer factor for carbon monoxide; FEV1 = forced expiratory volume in 1 s; FVC = forced vital capacity; TLC = total lung capacity.