Table 1.

Characteristics of patients with CT scan data at each timepoint

CharacteristicAll patients, n=58With baseline CT scan, n=48With 3-month CT scan, n=56*With 12-month CT scan, n=45*p-value
SARS-CoV-2 PCR resultPositive/tested (%)47/55 (85.5%)37/45 (82.2%)46/53 (86.8%)37/43 (86.1%)0.834
Interval between CT scans (days)Median (IQR)93 (63–121)349 (263–370)
Range45–263165–435
Age (years)Median (IQR)58 (52–68)59 (54–69)58 (53–67)58 (52–66)0.792
Range33–8233–8233–8233–80
SexFemale22 (37.9%)18 (37.5%)21 (37.5%)19 (42.2%)0.891
Male36 (62.1%)30 (62.5%)35 (62.5%)26 (57.8%)
Smoking historyEx-smoker6 (10.3%)5 (10.4%)6 (10.7%)4 (8.9%)0.999
Never smoked30 (51.7%)24 (50.0%)29 (51.8%)23 (51.1%)
Not recorded22 (37.9%)19 (39.6%)21 (37.5%)18 (40.0%)
BMI (kg/m2)Median (IQR)29.7 (26.9–31.5)29.7 (27.7–31.4)29.9 (26.9–31.6)29.6 (26.9–32.3)0.975
EthnicityAsian or Asian British5 (8.6%)3 (6.3%)5 (8.9%)5 (11.1%)0.988
Black, Black British, Caribbean or African13 (22.4%)13 (27.1%)12 (21.4%)9 (20.0%)
White13 (22.4%)12 (25.0%)13 (23.2%)9 (20.0%)
Mixed or other ethnic groups20 (34.5%)16 (33.3%)20 (35.7%)17 (37.8%)
Not specified7 (12.1%)4 (8.3%)6 (10.7%)5 (11.1%)
ComorbiditiesAsthma6/58 (10.3%)6/48 (12.5%)4/56 (7.1%)6/45 (13.3%)0.569
DM23/58 (39.7%)19/48 (39.6%)22/56 (39.3%)19/45 (42.2%)0.955
HTN31/58 (53.4%)28/48 (58.3%)30/56 (53.6%)23/45 (51.1%)0.783
IHD/TIA/CVA/AF/DVT7/58 (12.1%)7/48 (14.6%)6/56 (10.7%)6/45 (13.3%)0.824
CKD6/58 (10.3%)5/48 (10.4%)6/56 (10.7%)5/45 (11.1%)1.000
Obesity30/58 (51.7%)25/48 (52.1%)28/56 (50.0%)24/45 (53.3%)0.957
Peak respiratory support requiredNone8 (13.8%)8 (16.7%)8 (14.3%)6 (13.3%)1.000
Supplementary oxygen with peak FiO2 <60%15 (25.9%)9 (18.8%)13 (23.2%)11 (24.4%)
Supplementary oxygen with peak FiO2 ≥60% but not requiring CPAP, IPPV or ECMO5 (8.6%)3 (6.3%)5 (8.9%)4 (8.9%)
CPAP2 (3.5%)2 (4.2%)2 (3.6%)2 (4.4%)
IPPV27 (46.6%)25 (52.1%)27 (48.2%)21 (46.7%)
IPPV + ECMO1 (1.7%)1 (2.1%)1 (1.8%)1 (2.2%)
Length of hospital admission (days)Median (IQR)32 (7–61)39 (6.5–67.5)35.5 (6.5–61.5)34 (8–59)0.958
  • *For 10 patients without baseline CT, intervals to 3-month and 12-month scans were calculated from date of discharge at baseline.

  • Chi-squared test (or Fisher's exact test if any cell frequency ≤5) for categorical variables, Kruskal–Wallis test for continuous variables comparing values at each timepoint (baseline, 3 months and 12 months); for each comorbidity, presence versus absence (some patients had multiple health conditions).

  • AF = atrial fibrillation; CKD = chronic kidney disease; CPAP = continuous positive airway pressure; CT = computed tomography; CVA = cerebrovascular accident; DM = diabetes mellitus; DVT = deep venous thrombosis; ECMO = extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; FiO2 = fraction of inspired oxygen; HTN = hypertension; IHD = ischemic heart disease; IPPV = invasive positive pressure ventilation; IQR = interquartile range; SARS-Cov-2 = severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2; TIA = transient ischaemic attack.