Box 1.

Summary of key lessons for future emerging infections.

Public health lessons:
> Behavioural and political factors contribute to outbreak spread and should be central to the outbreak response.
> Assessment of the epidemiology of transmission, including R0 and route of transmission, should inform the magnitude of the response to emerging infections.
Clinical lessons:
> Screening for suspected cases requires a systematic approach and a high index of suspicion. Presentation may not be typical, but case identification is key to effective outbreak control. Reliable rapid tests would have helped early interventions.
> Healthcare work-associated risks should be addressed to reduce healthcare worker morbidity and nosocomial transmission
> Implementation of supportive management strategies may reduce mortality. Evaluation of such strategies is required to inform an evidence-based approach