Box 1.

The primary causes of AKI. Reproduced with permission from the London AKI Network.

Sepsis and hypoperfusion:
> severe sepsis
> haemorrhage
> dehydration
> cardiac failure
> liver failure
> renovascular insult (eg aortic surgery).
Toxicity:
> nephrotoxic drugs
> iodinated radiological contrast.
Obstruction:
> bladder outflow
> stones
> tumour
> surgical ligation of ureters
> extrinsic compression (eg lymph nodes)
> retroperitoneal fibrosis.
Parenchymal kidney disease:
> glomerulonephritis
> tubulointersitial nephritis
> rhabdomyolysis
> haemolytic uraemic syndrome
> myeloma kidney
> malignant hypertension.