Table 1.

Summary of basic characteristics of studies selected for inclusion in meta-analysis

StudyStudy designDiseaseCausesPatients, nInterventionsContent of therapyMean age, yearsMaleSeverity of illnessPaO 2/FiO 2, mmHgComorbidity
Zhu32RCTARFACPE, ALI, lobar atelectasis, pneumonia, COPD, RMF48NPPVBilevel positive airways pressure S/T mode (BiPAP) via a face mask via a face mask6267%17.2*NAHT, DM
47ControlStandard medical care and oxygen therapy as needed6157%17.6*
Zhan24RCTALIPulmonary infection, acute pancreatitis, multiple trauma, sepsis21NPPVBilevel positive airways pressure S/T mode (BiPAP) via a face mask4476%11.8*225.4 (17.4)HT, immunosuppres-sion, DM, chronic renal insufficiency, cancer
19ControlHigh-concentration oxygen therapy through a Venturi mask4942%13.4*234.4 (26.6)
Uçgun25ProspectiveARDSNA10NPPVA BiPAP vision ventilator device was used in BIPAP mode via a CPAP full-face mask4390%17.4*110NA
10ControlStandard therapy (such as oxygen, antibiotics, and bronchodilators)4780%18.8*103.3
De Santo26ProspectiveARFPost-cardiopulmonary bypass lung injury, cardiogenic oedema, pneumonia43NPPVHelmet6674%NA357 (60.4)DM, COPD, low LVEF
422ControlNA6269%NA381 (41)
Yañez31RCTARFNA25NIVPositive airways pressure STD 30 mode (BiPAP) via a face mask1668%NAMedian (IQR): 150 (110-383)Moderate asthma, viral pneumonia and/or bronchiolitis, bacterial pneumonia, RSV pneumonia, bronchiolitis, parainfluenza, pneumonia
25ControlStandard treatment (mask oxygen)1852%NAMedian (IQR): 190 (101-400)
Thys28RCTARFAcute pulmonary oedema, acute exacerbation of COPD10NPPVBilevel positive airways pressure S/TD 30 mode (BiPAP) via a face mask via a face mask7170%NANANA
10ControlOxygen therapy + Placebo-device7640%
Auriant34RCTARFInterstitial pulmonary oedema, atelectasis, documented pneumonia24NPPVBilevel positive airways pressure S/TD 30 mode (BiPAP) via an nasal mask59NA16.9^126.8 (42.1)NA
24ControlStandard therapy (oxygen, bronchodilatators, patient controlled analgesia, chest physiotherapy)63NA16.8^127.1 (42.5)
Antonelli16RCTARFPneumonia, ACPE, ARDS, mucous plugging or atelectasis, pulmonary embolism20NPPVBilevel positive airway pressure via a full face mask4565%13^129 (30)NA
20ControlOxygen supplementation4460%13^129 (30)
Martin33RCTARFHypercapnic, hypoxemic32NPPVBilevel positive airways pressure S/TD mode (BiPAP) via an nasal mask6447%58#Hypercapnic ARF: 190(68) Hypoxemic ARF:103 (35)COPD, Non-COPD-related pulmonary disease
29ControlUsual medical care5848%65#Hypercapnic ARF: 208 (90) Hypoxemic ARF:110 (43)
Confalonieri27RCTARFSevere community-acquired pneumonia28NPPVContinuous positive airway pressure through full-face mask6682%20*183 (36)COPD
28ControlStandard treatment with oxygen supplementation delivered by a Venturi mask6161%18*167 (47)
Wood29RCTARDSACPE, COPD, pneumonia, interstitial lung disease, sepsis16NPPVHospital-grade ventilatory support systems (BiPAP) stationed in the ED. via an nasal mask5669%18.1*NANA
11ControlConventional medical therapy (supplemental oxygen and pharmacologic therapy)6246%15.6*
Wysocki30RCTARFPneumonia, ACPE, Laryngeal dyspnea, chest wall impairment21NIPSVNIPSV was delivered to the patient through a full-face mask6457%17^NANA
20ControlMedications related to the cause of respiratory distress (antibiotics, diuretics, inotropics, etc) and oxygen supplementation6260%12^
  • *APACHE (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation) II score

  • ^SAPS II (Simplified Acute Physiology Score)

  • #APACHE III score

  • ACPE = acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema; ALI = acute lung injury; ARDS = acute respiratory distress syndrome; ARF = acute respiratory failure; COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; DM = diabetes mellitus; HT = hypertension; LVEF = left ventricular ejection fraction; NA = not available; NIV = non-invasive ventilation; NIPSV = non-invasive pressure support ventilation; NPPV = non-invasive positive-pressure ventilation; RCT = randomised controlled trial; RMF = respiratory muscle fatigue; RSV = respiratory syncytial virus