Table 1.

Common causes of clinical deterioration following acute stroke

NeurologicalNon-neurological
Haemorrhagic transformation of an infarctInfection (chest or urine)
Malignant cerebral oedemaPulmonary embolism
Intracerebral haematoma expansionMetabolic disturbance
Recurrent cerebral emboliMyocardial infarction
Hydrocephalus
Seizure