Table 3A.

Quantitative study quality

Quantitative studiesFord, 201518Ford, 201319Iyer, 201125Adekeye 201215Barnett, 201116Ford, 201523Mensforth 201420Wigfall, 201022Wigfall, 201111Zingmond, 200127Akers 200712Akers 200813Mack, 199928
Did the study address a clearly focused issue?YYYYYYNYYYYYY
Was the cohort recruited in an acceptable way to minimise selection bias?NAYCan’t tellNANYNANANANAYYNA
Was the exposure and outcome accurately measured to minimise bias?YYCan’t tellCan’t tellNYCan’t tellYYYYCan’t tellY
Have the authors identified all important confounding factors?YCan’t tellCan’t tellYNCan’t tellNYYYYYY
Have the authors taken confounding factors into account in the design and/or analysis?YNCan’t tellCan’t tellNNCan’t tellYYYYYY
Was the follow up of subjects complete and long enough? (Not relevant for all studies)NANANANANANANANANANANANANA
Were the results precise?YYCan’t tellYCan’t tellYNYYYYYCan’t tell
Do you believe the results?YYYYYYYYYYYYY
Can the results be applied to the local population?YNYYNYNYYYYYY
Do the results of this study fit with other available evidence?YYYYYYYYYYYYY
Total score /108/106/104/106/103/107/102/108/108/108/109/108/107/10