Table 2.

Examples of prognostic tools validated in palliative care settings

Prognostic toolValidated populationsType of predictionFactors included in scoreComments
Palliative Prognostic Score (PaP)Mixed advanced disease: cancer and non-cancerProbability of surviving 30 days – score assigns patients to one of three groups with <30%, 30–70% or >70% probability of survivalSymptoms of dyspnoea and anorexia
Functional status
Clinician predicted survival
Laboratory results: white cell count and lymphocyte %
A hybrid assessment method which combines clinicians’ survival estimates with clinical features and blood results
Palliative Performance Scale (PPS)Mixed advanced disease: cancer and non-cancerEach decreasing PPS level (deciles from 100 to 0%) is associated with a shorter survival; a study has derived median survival in days for PPS levels 10–70%Functional status based on ambulation activity and evidence of disease self-care intake (food and fluid) conscious levelDoes not rely on blood results or clinician predictions of survival. Not specifically developed as a prognostic tool and may therefore be missing some key prognostic variables.
Prognosis in Palliative care study (PiPS-A) scoreAdvanced incurable cancerProvides a probability of surviving days (0–14 days), weeks (15–56 days) or months (>56 days)Clinical information on diagnosis
Sites of metastases
Presence or absence of key symptoms
Cognitive status
Functional status
Does not rely on blood results or clinician predictions of survival
Prognosis in Palliative care study (PiPS-B) scoreSimilar factors as for PiPS-A but with addition of blood resultsDoes not rely on clinician predictions of survival. In one study was found to be better than a doctor's or a nurse's survival prediction
Palliative Prognostic Index (PPI)Advanced incurable cancerProbability of surviving <3 weeks or <6 weeksPerformance score
Oral intake
Clinical signs of oedema and delirium
Symptoms of dyspnoea
Does not rely on blood results or clinician predictions of survival