Table 1.

Maternal and fetal risks of diabetes in pregnancy.2–5

MaternalFetal
Severe hypoglycaemia, particularly during the 1st trimesterMacrosomia resulting in birth trauma and delivery complications, long-term risks of insulin resistance, obesity and type 2 diabetes
Pre-eclampsiaPre-term delivery
Progression of nephropathy and retinopathyNeonatal hypoglycaemia
Diabetic ketoacidosisNeonatal care admission
Caesarean sectionCongenital malformations (risk 3–4% in type 1 and type 2 diabetes), 3,5 risk increases with increasing 1st trimester HbA1c
Thromboembolic diseaseMiscarriage, stillbirth and neonatal death – risk increases with increasing 1st trimester HbA1c 4
  • HbA1c = glycated haemoglobin.